Baseline Survey Report



Southern Africa Trust
Monitoring & Evaluation Baseline Survey

Report April 2007
 

 


Produced for the Southern Africa Trust by NB Ideas, PO Box 12364 , Mill Street ,8010, South Africa , Email: info@nbideas.co.za

1     Introduction

The Southern Africa Trust commissioned a baseline report to provide a quick snap shot of the civil society sector and its understanding of regional policy processes. The information gathered will be used to determine the nature of capacity building, funding and networking supported by the Trust.

 

In addition, the information provides a baseline against which the Southern Africa Trust will measure the impact of its work by repeating the survey in a few years time.

 

Following this introduction, the report outlines the process and methodology used in Section Two. In Section Three an overview of the respondents is provided. This is followed in Section Four, with a summary of the findings grouped into five categories, namely; capacity, evidence based research, networking, knowledge and participation. The findings are analysed with reference to area of operation, country of location, and type of organisation. The report concludes with general comments and lessons for future surveys.

2      Process and methodology

The questionnaire used was developed by the consultants with inputs from Southern Africa Trust staff. The draft questionnaire was piloted with the team before being rolled out. The questionnaire aims to provide baseline information in respect of capacity of civil society organisations to engage in regional policy processes to end poverty. This is assessed using two indicators: human resources and funding. Secondly, the questionnaire provides information on the extent and nature of evidence-based research taking place. Thirdly, questions on the nature, extent and frequency of networking provide an overview of collaboration efforts. The next set of questions tried to determine the knowledge base of partners through a series of multiple choice questions. The final set of questions focused on the degree to which organisations are participating in policy processes and the obstacles to increased participation.

 

The questionnaire was administered in English, French and Portuguese. In January (17/01) emails requests were sent out to selected organisations from the Southern Africa Trust database, a request was placed on the Trust website, forms were printed and two people were asked to administer the forms at the World Social Forum in Nairobi in January 2007.

 

A second email was sent out a week before the closing date (02/02) reminding people to complete the questionnaire. This was followed a week later with an email to those who had not completed the form announcing a one-week extension and making a final appeal.

 

On analysing the responses received it became clear that the Trust had not received adequate responses from some countries. Expanded databases were compiled for Angola , Namibia and Botswana and a new request circulated to these organisations. In the case of the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC), contact was made with a partner organisation requesting them to assist in identifying additional contacts and circulating the questionnaire.

 

The dataset was finally closed at the end of March 2007.  The final set of responses reflects the strength of regional policy organisations in the Southern African Development Community (SADC) region. A reasonable number of organisations responded from South Africa , Zambia , Tanzania and Mozambique . Fair responses were received from Botswana , Zimbabwe and Malawi . Responses from other countries were limited. Consequently, while some general conclusions about the sector are possible, country by country analysis is limited to major trends given the limited sample size.

 

As respondents were able to select how they describe the work of their organisation the survey merely provides a perception of the sector and its work by the sector itself. No changes were made to completed questionnaires. The authors of the report did have concerns about the accuracy of responses, and this is reflected in the text describing the analysis of the dataset.

3      Respondents

The database provided by the Trust was limited with only 273 relevant organisations captured on the initial dataset. A further 132 organisations were included in the subsequent databases added.

 

From a database of 405 organisations, 125 (31%) survey responses were received.  Twenty-one respondents used the online form, 104 (83%) used the Microsoft Word form or printed form. Of the 125 respondents 70 (56%) did not fully complete the survey leaving one or more question unanswered. Five of the responses were excluded as the organisations in question operated beyond SADC, the focus of the Trust’s interventions.

 

3.1  Analysis of respondents by geographic scope of operations

The bulk of respondents work focused on a country (54). This was followed by organisations operating at a regional scale, (32) those focusing on the African continent (18) and finally those operating globally (20) and one (1) undefined.

 

Graph 1: Analysis of respondents by scope of operation

 

 

The largest slice of the pie above is for organisations with a single country focus. In the table below we list the number of respondents per SADC country and the number of these focusing just on their country of location.

 

The largest number of responses were received by South Africa (29), followed by Zambia (19), Tanzania (13) and Mozambique (11). This probably reflects, in part, the Trust’s profile in these countries and in part the strength of CSOs and therefore the number of organisations on the database.  The fewest responses were received from Lesotho (1), Namibia (1), The Democratic Republic of Congo (1), Madagascar (2) and Swaziland (3).  The database for the DRC, Lesotho and Madagascar was relatively small.  Of concern is the poor response from Namibian organisations as the database for Namibia was extensive.

 

Within the other category 15 respondents did not specify either the name of the organisation or the country of operation so it was not possible to classify them. A further 3 were based outside of SADC but specified they worked in the SADC region. Any organisations who worked outside of the SADC region were excluded from the final dataset.

Table 1: Analysis of respondents by country of location

Country

No. of respondents by country

No. of respondents working only in their own country

Angola

4

3

Botswana

6

0

Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC)

1

1

Lesotho

1

1

Madagascar

2

2

Malawi

5

5

Mauritius

4

2

Mozambique

11

9

Namibia

1

1

South Africa

31

3

Swaziland

3

0

Tanzania

13

10

Zambia

17

7

Zimbabwe

7

5

Other

18

5

TOTAL

125

54

3.2  Analysis of respondents by type of work

A second lens used to analyse the responses is the type of work performed by an organisation, namely; advocacy, research, service delivery, community development, policy or some combination of these. The majority of organisations who responded to the questionnaire were involved in a combination of research, policy, advocacy and development work (69). This was followed by a focus on community development (22), research (7) and advocacy (8). Eleven organisations focused on categories outside the options such as media and one respondent did not state the type of work undertaken.   

 

Disaggregating those engaged in a combination of activities and including them in each of the types of work they do, the respondent profile is fairly evenly balanced with service delivery the least represented. The graph below provides a visual picture of the responses by type of work.  

Graph 2: Analysis of respondents by type of work

 4 Findings

4.1  Capacity

In general, the capacity of organisations who responded to the questionnaire is divided with just under half considered to be adequately resourced and just over half under resourced. 

 

If human resource strength is used as the measure of capacity 32, or one quarter, of the organisations would be considered highly capacitated in respect of policy work. The effectiveness of these organisations has not been evaluated. However all 32 reported staff of 7 or more working in the policy arena. A further 3 organisations did not have significant staff but did have a large pool of consultants contracted to do the policy work on their behalf. Twenty-five organisations (21%) were adequately resourced largely with internal staff but two with consultants. These organisations had between 4 and 7 staff. The remaining 53% did not have adequate capacity with 19% reporting no capacity and 34% fewer than four staff or consultants.

 

In general respondents noted a high level of capacity, which does not match with the team’s knowledge of the sector. It is doubtful where the reported human resource capacity reflects full-time dedicated staffing and is more likely to reflect a portion of staff whose activities includes some policy work. In the view of the authors of this report this highlights the lack of understanding about analytical policy work and its importance within the sector.

 

Graph 3: Consolidated analysis of human resource capacity profile of respondents

 

If funding is used as an indicator of capacity then the percentage of capacitated organisations reduces substantially with only 1% regarding themselves as adequately resourced and a further 8% considered to be resourced by the consultants, with a combination of dedicated resources for policy work and more than three funding sources for this work. In aggregate terms roughly half (54%) do not have adequate funding resources suggesting a direct link between funding and human resource capacity. In addition to funding resources, 16% of respondents raised funds through consulting services, 8% received funding from government (within this 40% were in Tanzania and 30% in South Africa) and 16% raised funds directly through events and membership fees. Twelve organisations worked with volunteers. 

 

Graph 4: Consolidated analysis of funding capacity profile of respondents

 

 

Where capacity is weak or poor there is a strong correlation between human resource and funding capacity. As organisations strengthen there is a window period where human resource capacity exceeds the dedicated funding resources before the balance swings and funding exceeds human capacity. This seems to suggest that strongly capacitated organisations do not need additional funding support.

 


 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

If the capacity needs are further broken down, it is clear that the pool of capacitated organisations is weighted toward organisations that are global or continent focused with those working in individual countries ( Mozambique , Botswana . Zimbabwe and Tanzania ) recording the lowest capacity, followed by those focusing on the SADC region. Angolan, Botswanan, Zambian and South African CSOs recorded the strongest human capacity. Sixty-one percent of organisations focusing on Africa have adequate to strong capacity. Fifty-five percent of organisations working at the global level have adequate to strong capacity. In both cases, the consolidated picture for human resource and for funding capacity is the same. Organisations focusing on SADC had the poorest human resource capacity while those focusing on a single country had the weakest funding capacity.

 

Table 2:  Capacity assessment by scope of operations (human resources)

 

Scope of operations

Weak

Poor

Adequate

Strong

Global

15%

30%

25%

30%

Africa

22%

17%

11%

50%

SADC

13%

53%

16%

19%

Country specific

24%

31%

24%

20%

Total

19%

34%

21%

26%

 

Table 3:  Capacity assessment by scope of operations (funding)

 

Scope of operations

Weak

Poor

Adequate

Strong

Global

25%

20%

5%

50%

Africa

17%

22%

0%

61%

SADC

6%

44%

9%

41%

Country specific

31%

33%

15%

20%

Total

22%

32%

10%

36%

 

Analysed by type of work undertaken by the organisation, the strongest human resource capacity exists in organisations involved in service delivery and/or research and the weakest in organisations focusing on community development and/ or other work, which (in most instances) was described as media work.

 

Table 4: Capacity assessment by type of organisation (human resources)

Type of organisation

Weak

Poor

Adequate

Strong

Advocacy

16%

33%

29%

22%

Service Delivery

13%

26%

35%

26%

Community Development

19%

36%

16%

29%

Research

9%

30%

31%

30%

Policy

10%

39%

29%

22%

Other

23%

35%

19%

23%

Total

15%

33%

27%

25%

 

If funding is the indicator of capacity then the weakest capacity is again in organisations involved in other work (largely media) and in those doing community work. The most resourced organisations are those involved in policy, service delivery, research and advocacy. CSOs in South Africa were the most resourced financially, followed by those in Botswana and Tanzania . Those with the least financial resources were in Mozambique . For the rest financial capacity was spread.

 

Table 5: Capacity assessment by type of organisation (funding)

 

Type of organisation

Weak

Poor

Adequate

Strong

Advocacy

13%

38%

9%

40%

Service Delivery

9%

35%

13%

43%

Community Development

33%

29%

12%

26%

Research

11%

35%

9%

45%

Policy

14%

27%

16%

43%

Other

31%

38%

4%

27%

Total

18%

34%

11%

37%

 

4.2  Evidence based research

When reviewing the knowledge and use of evidence-based research it is clear that most of the respondents were exposed to evidence-based research and using it, even in combination with other research methods. Of these only 37 reported to base all their research on evidence based research. Of these 9 had not produced any research in the last 12 months. Twenty-five percent reported having had their research report accepted or adopted by government.  These spanned various types of research and the research was not limited to evidence based work.

 

The team was concerned about the accuracy of the data provided in this section based on the knowledge of the sector. This is attributed to differing interpretations of evidence based research methods amongst respondents. There seemed to be a lot of confusion around what exactly constituted evidence based research with several respondents claiming to include evidence based methods but with no research outputs recorded or with research outputs that are clearly not evidence based recorded.

 

A list of the recorded evidence based research reports produced in the last 12 months by respondents follows:

  • Abolition of marital power
  • Advocate for implementation of regional laws
  • Constitutional review process to increase women's right
  • Control on pesticide use
  • Cotonou Agreement Manual for CSOs
  • Debt- monitor public expenditure and allocate to social education - quality education - health- abolition of user fees
  • Domestic Violence Legislation and Sexual Offences Legislation
  • Economic literacy for youth in communities
  • Educacar para cidadamia Desenvoloimento Rural e Ambiente
  • Family Law Reforms
  • Fortalocimento de movimentos associativos
  • Free ARVs and post exposure prophylaxis for sexually abused women and girls
  • Gender Land Restitution/Redistribution
  • HIV/AIDS deeper understanding
  • HIV/AIDS and farmdwellers
  • Corruption, free and fair governance
  • IDP policy, education in conflict, seed security
  • Inclusion of livelihoods in National PLANS OF Action (NPA)- national government in the process of reviewing
  • Justica social
  • Migrant labour (mining Industry) Impact of the downscaling of the mining industry on labour sending countries
  • Modernization of agriculture through irrigation reduce aid dependency encourage more domestic savings promote local entrepreneurship
  • MOU with local government to deliver multiple government services to rural communities on a routine weekly schedule
  • National Disability Act of 2006
  • Ongoing work on Sexual Reproductive Health Policies
  • Pancemio com organizacos governamentais
  • Pesquisa sobre o tratamento da violencia domestre Pesquisa sobre artiso discriminatanos uo codigo penal
  • Policy considerations on social protection and child future security
  • Por favor enumere-os
  • Positions on Export Credit Agencies in Africa PRSPs and MDGs Loan Contraction
  • Pre 2007 budget, civil society participation in poverty reduction budget support (PRBS)- in progress. Civil society monitoring systems for National development plans
  • Recherche action par reseau thematique Capitalisation des experiences probantes Mise en place des equipes des consultants locaux
  • School management committee IDP policy
  • Special Safeguard Measures for Zambia
  • Sub-region common products for exportation
  • Support to youth under 18 years in children's homes- integration strategy
  • Sustainable peace strategy in Burundi and the sub-region
  • The Behaviour of South African Investors in Zambia and Malawi
  • The Impacts of Chinese Economic Activities in Zambia and Malawi
  • The Privatisation of Copper Mines in Zambia
  • Thematic Research Papers for The Zimbabwe Human Report on Gender
  • Use of community-based planning as participatory planning approach
  • Use of community-based workers as mechanism for service delivery.

 

It was not possible to review any of the reports in this baseline study. In future, the team noted that the questions in this section need to be reformulated to allow better cross referencing of responses. 

 

Graph 5: Consolidated analysis of research capacity profile of respondents

 

 

Global organisations demonstrated the strongest evidence base research capacity while SADC countries demonstrated the strongest general research capacity, although only 6% based their work solely on evidence based methodologies. The weakest capacity exits in organisations focused on the continent and those that focus on an individual country. South African and Zambian organisations demonstrated the best research capacity while the weakest was in Tazania , Mozambique and Botswana .

 

Table 6:  Evidence based research assessment by scope of operations

 

Scope of operations

Weak

Poor

Adequate

Strong

Global

0%

35%

20%

45%

Africa

17%

39%

17%

28%

SADC

28%

22%

44%

6%

Country specific

13%

41%

20%

26%

Total

14%

34%

26%

25%

 

The weakest research capacity is found in community development organisations. Surprisingly, few advocacy based organisations base their work on experiences on the ground or on solid research. The strongest evidence based research capacity exists in organisations doing research, followed by those working in the policy area.

Table 7: Evidence based research assessment by type of organisation

 

Type of organisation

Weak

Poor

Adequate

Strong

Advocacy

27%

28.5%

28.5%

16%

Service Delivery

18%

30%

30%

22%

Community Development

12%

44%

22%

22%

Research

13%

26%

30%

31%

Policy

18%

29%

25%

28%

Other

27%

23%

27%

23%

Total

19%

30%

27%

24%

 

4.3  Networks and dialogue

Seventy-three percent of organisations networked with three or more partners suggesting networks are strong. However analysing the partners it became clear that while networking amongst CSOs and between CSOs and community groups and donors was strong, networking with government, parliamentarians and private sector is very weak. Only 2% of respondents networked with all three, 14% networked with the private sector, 15% with parliamentarians and 36% with government. 

 

Graph 6: Consolidated analysis of networking capacity profile of respondents

 

Table 8:  Networking assessment by scope of operations

 

Scope of operations

Weak

Poor

Adequate

Strong

Global

5%

10%

75%

0%

Africa

17%

6%

77%

0%

SADC

3%

6%

85%

6%

Country specific

23%

9%

63%

5%

Total

10%

8%

79%

3%

 

Breaking this down further, it is clear that Botswana and Mauritius CSOs are best networked with government and South African and Zambian CSOs have the strongest private sector links.

 

Table 9: Networking with government and private sector by country of operation

 

Country

Respondents by country

Govt networks

Parliamentary networks

Private sector networks

Angola

4

2

2

0

Botswana

6

5

3

1

 DRC

1

1

0

0

Lesotho

1

0

0

0

Madagascar

2

0

0

0

Malawi

5

2

1

0

Mauritius

3

3

0

0

Mozambique

11

2

1

0

Namibia

1

0

0

0

South Africa

31

13

5

6

Swaziland

3

0

0

0

Tanzania

13

3

0

1

Zambia

17

7

5

4

Zimbabwe

8

2

1

1

Other

18

6

1

4

TOTAL

125

45

19

14

 

Research and policy organisations were the best networked with all constituencies while policy and advocacy organisations were the best networked with other organisations in the CSO, community and donor sectors.

 

Table 10: Networking assessment by type of organisation

 

Type of organisation

Weak

Poor

Adequate

Strong

Advocacy

5%

5%

90%

0%

Service Delivery

9%

9%

81%

0%

Community Development

14%

7%

79%

0%

Research

6%

7%

75%

12%

Policy

4%

4%

88%

4 %

Other

15%

4%

81%

0%

Total

9%

5%

83%

3%

 

4.4  Knowledge

Organisations’ knowledge base of SADC regional processes and other related policy processes was one of the weakest areas noted in the baseline survey. Of the organisations who responded only 7 organisations or 6% of respondents had a good knowledge base, scoring 80% or more correct answers in the multiple choice questions in the knowledge section of the questionnaire. A further 30, or 24%, scored between 60 and 80% correct answers. Seventy percent (70%) of respondents got more than half the questions wrong. Within this, 46 organisations or 36% got fewer than two correct answers. All unanswered questions were regarded as a lack of knowledge. In one case the respondent refused to answer the questions as he did not agree with any of the multiple-choice options provided. This response was excluded in the calculations.

 

Graph 7: Consolidated analysis of knowledge base of respondents

 

 

Analysing those with adequate or strong knowledge we can conclude that organisations working in the SADC region had the best knowledge, followed by those working in the continent. The weakest knowledge was found in organisations focusing exclusively on one country only. South African, Zimbabwean and Botswana CSOs have the best knowledge and Tanzania , Swaziland , Mozambique and Angola CSOs the weakest knowledge.

 

Table 11:  Knowledge assessment by scope of operations

 

Scope of operations

Weak

Poor

Adequate

Strong

Global

35%

35%

25%

5%

Africa

28%

33%

33%

6%

SADC

22%

34%

38%

6%

Country specific

50%

33%

11%

6%

Total

36%

34%

25%

5%

 

Policy and research organisations had the best knowledge along with those working on service delivery. Community development organisations had the weakest knowledge along with those focusing on other areas – largely media. The poor knowledge in most advocacy organisations was surprising.

 

Table 12: Knowledge assessment by type of organisation

 

Type of organisation

Weak

Poor

Adequate

Strong

Advocacy

24%

41%

27%

8%

Service Delivery

30.5%

30.5%

26%

13%

Community Development

47%

33%

17%

3%

Research

26%

31%

37%

6%

Policy

22%

29%

35%

14%

Other

35%

23%

31%

11%

Total

31%

31%

30%

8%

 

4.5  Participation in regional processes

Very few organisations had participated in a regional policy process in the last year. Fifty-two percent had not had any engagement with regional policy processes. Of the few that had participated 11% had merely attended a public session, 25% had been invited to a meeting and just 12% had addressed a meeting. Most organisations became involved through a sister organisation and others through their governments. A handful had heard about the process through the media.

 

Graph 8: Consolidated analysis of participation profile of respondents

 

 

Organisations focusing on the continent participated the most in regional policy processes followed by global organisations. The weak participation by most SADC focused CSOs was surprising and of concern. The weakest participation was found in Mozambique , South Africa and Zambia CSOs while the strongest was in Mauritius and Zimbabwe CSOs.

 

Table 13:  Participation assessment by scope of operations

 

Scope of operations

Weak

Poor

Adequate

Strong

Global

60%

10%

15%

15%

Africa

39%

11%

28%

22%

SADC

57%

11%

22%

9%

On country only

50%

13%

28%

9%

Total

53%

11%

25%

12%

 

Service delivery organisations reported the highest levels of participation while advocacy and research organisations demonstrated the low levels of participation suggesting they are not being very effective in engaging directly in policy processes.

 

Table 14: Participation assessment by type of organisation

 

Type of organisation

Weak

Poor

Adequate

Strong

Advocacy

48%

14%

21%

16%

Service Delivery

30%

22%

35%

13%

Community Development

57%

14%

21%

8%

Research

48%

13%

17%

20%

Policy

39%

16%

29%

16%

Other

54%

4%

31%

7%

Total

46%

14%

26%

14%

 

4.6  Enabling environment

CSO perceptions of the environment in which they work was assessed by asking if organisations had engaged with government on a policy proposal in the last year, how often they had engaged and what they perceived as the major obstacles to engagement. Sixty-three percent of respondents had met at least once with their government to discuss a policy issue. However, few had had any sustained dialogue (14%) and a further 15% had had significant engagement. Thirty five percent had met infrequently and 36% had not met with anyone from government to discuss policy in the last year.  This is reflected in graph 9 below.

 

Twenty-seven percent saw bureaucratic processes as the major obstacle and a further 23% claimed the major obstacle was the lack of recognition of the sector by the state. Seventeen percent cited a lack of information as the major obstacle and 23% cited internal constraints, namely capacity (10%) and funding (13%), as the major constraints to participation. The remaining 10% did not cite a reason for the barriers to participation.

 

Graph 9: CSO perception of the environment in which they work

 

 

Most organisations reported a poor enabling environment with African and SADC focused CSOs experiencing the best opportunities for dialogue and participation. Mauritius CSOs experienced the best working relationship with their government, followed by Zambia . South Africa (largely working on SADC or continental issues) and Zimbabwe reported the weakest working relationships.

 

Table 15: Enabling environment assessment by scope of operations

 

Scope of operations

Weak

Poor

Adequate

Strong

Global

40%

35%

5%

20%

Africa

28%

39%

22%

11%

SADC

28%

34%

19%

19%

On country only

43%

33%

15%

9%

Total

36%

35%

15%

14%

 

Policy, advocacy and research organisations mostly noted poorly enabled environments, along with media organisations, while community development and service delivery organisations reported the least enabling environments.

 

Table 16: Enabling environment by type of organisation

 

Type of organisation

Weak

Poor

Adequate

Strong

Advocacy

27%

40%

14%

19%

Service Delivery

39%

22%

22%

17%

Community Development

50%

24%

17%

9%

Research

24%

37%

19%

20%

Policy

21%

39%

20%

20%

Other

27%

35%

19%

19%

Total

31%

33%

19%

17%

 

4.7  Overview

In summary the following three tables provide an overview of the dominant characteristics of respondents by scope, type and country of operation.

 

Table 17: Summary by scope

 

 

Overall

Global orgs

African orgs

SADC orgs

Country specific orgs

Capacity

Poor

Strong

Strong

Poor

Poor

Evidence Based Research

Evenly spread

Strong

Poor

Adequate

Poor

Networking

Poor- Strong

Poor- Strong

Poor- Strong

Poor- Strong

Poor- Strong

Knowledge

Weak

Poor

Poor

Adequate

Weak

Participation

Weak

Weak

Poor

Weak

weak

 

Table 18: Summary by type of work

 

Type of work

Advocacy

Service

Com Dev

Research

Policy

Capacity

Poor

Adequate

Poor - weak

Poor - strong

Poor – strong

Evidence Based Research

Poor - adequate

Poor – adequate

Poor

Strong

Evenly distributed

Networking

Poor – strong

Weak – strong

Weak - strong

Weak - strong

Poor - strong

Knowledge

Poor

Weak

Weak

Adequate

Adequate

Participation

Weak

Adequate

Weak

Weak

Weak

 

 

Table 19: Summary by country of operation

 

Country

Capacity

EB research

Networking

Knowledge

Participation

Angola

Strong

Poor/strong

Strong

Weak

Poor

Botswana

Poor- adequate

Weak-adequate

Strong

Adequate – strong

Weak – poor

DRC

Adequate

Adequate

Adequate

Poor

Weak

Lesotho

Adequate

Adequate

Adequate

Strong

Adequate

Madagascar

Poor

Poor

Poor

Weak-poor

Weak

Malawi

Strong- adequate

Evenly spread

Adequate

Weak/ adequate

Evenly spread

Mauritius

Poor

Weak

Adequate

Weak

Adequate

Mozambique

Weak – Poor

Evenly spread

Adequate

Weak-poor

Weak

Namibia

Adequate

Adequate

Adequate

Poor

Adequate

South Africa

Strong – poor

Poor-adequate

Adequate – strong

Weak – adequate

Poor

Swaziland

Poor

Poor

Poor

Poor

Weak

Tanzania

Poor

Poor

Adequate

Weak

Poor-weak

Zambia

Spread

Poor

Poor-Adequate – strong

Poor-weak

Poor-weak

Zimbabwe

Weak –adequate

Evenly spread

Adequate

Poor

Poor

Other

Poor/ Strong

Poor

Adequate - poor

Poor

Poor-weak


5     
Conclusion

 

It is recommended that in future respondents are targeted at meetings, more detail on research is collected (as several organisations did not seem to understand the different approaches to research) and interviews with government and private sector stakeholders are conducted to verify and supplement the data collected from CSOs.

 

 




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